Nguyen Vinh Thuy, the Emperor Bao Dai, was the last Emperor of the last imperial dynasty (the Nguyen) of Vietnam. He came to the throne in 1932 but his efforts at reform were frustrated by the French authorities. In 1945 the communist revolution forced his abdication. He later returned as “Chief of State” of Vietnam until his prime minister ousted him in 1955. He lived in exile in France until his death in 1997.